Magnesium and PMS

Magnesium and PMS


Magnesium   is an essential trace element for cellular homeostasis  ; it seems that its presence in  foods  is rather widespread, especially in vegetables, and in physiological conditions no  food deficiencies are known ; the magnesium deficit (induced or in any case secondary to other disorders) manifests itself with an alteration of the  metabolism of calcium ,  sodium  and  potassium , which leads to muscle weakness, impaired cardiac function and  tetanic crises .

In healthy subjects, the recommended magnesium ration is about 3 or 4.5 mg/kg, however, it has emerged that mild  magnesium deficiencies  can be completely  asymptomatic  and that, at times, its integration can reduce  symptoms related to premenstrual syndrome  and especially the soreness associated with breast swelling.

Premenstrual syndrome

Premenstrual syndrome is characterized by a set of symptoms that typically occur in the second phase of the cycle; among these there are physical, psychic and behavioral alterations. The triggering factors seem to be many: hormonal , dietary (probably including magnesium deficiency), metabolic and neurotransmission.

The diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome is made through the detection, in the 5 days preceding the flow, of some  somatic and psycho-affective signs ; they must occur for at least 3 consecutive cycles and must be completely absent between the 4th and 12th day of the cycle.

Obviously, the onset of symptoms must affect the subject’s lifestyle and occur independently of  alcohol and drug intake.


The most suitable therapy for the  treatment of premenstrual syndrome  is medical but not specific; nutritional, hormonal and drug therapies that act on the  central nervous system  (CNS) are distinguished. The drugs are administered in a personalized manner but often general indications on the increase in physical activity  can also be of great help.

Diet and Useful Supplements

Nutritional therapy is particularly indicated in the mild forms, but it must not be missing even in the more important ones; it is undertaken in the second half of the cycle and is based on the increase of some molecules likely to be useful for reducing symptoms.

Among these, the most effective seems to be the integration of  trace elements  and above all magnesium; it is mainly administered in the  luteal phase , generally through  magnesium pidolate , at a dose of 300 mg/day  orally . However, if in doubt of a more significant deficiency, the dose can be increased up to 1.5 g of elemental magnesium, divided into 2-3 daily intakes.

In general, organic magnesium salts (gluconate, aspartate,  citrate ,  pidolate , lactate ,  orotate ) demonstrate better intestinal absorption than inorganic salts ( magnesium chloride , magnesium carbonate, magnesium sulfate ) and magnesium oxide .

PLEASE NOTE: before starting the integration (assessed and administered by the attending physician) it is advisable to make sure that the  subject’s renal function is not compromised.

To optimize the nutritional therapy (preventive or palliative) of premenstrual syndrome, in addition to magnesium, it could prove useful to integrate:

  • Pyridoxine ( vit B6 ), up to 100 mg/die po
  • Tocopherol ( vit E ), up to 300 IU/die po,

both in the luteal phase.

The control of  nutritional (or combined) therapy for premenstrual syndrome  is based on outpatient clinical evaluation at intervals of three months, and then every six months, associated with the recording of the symptoms emerging from the self-evaluation questionnaire; this makes it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the overall treatment over time.



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